Introduction Background and Need My research shows that there are still thousands of English Learners who whether they drop out of high school or are falling through cracks. Throughout United States, teachers & professors alike have conducted studies that show us that equity in the classrooms has created a fundamental challenge for our educational system. (OECD, 2011) Furthermore, English learners are not dropping out because they don't see education as their only alternative to a better future, (Crandall & Sheppard, 2004)they are only suffering from limited knowledge of the English Language. What are being taught in their ESL classes are not sufficient to open doors for them in other classes appropriate to their age. (Youngs & Youngs, 2001) (Hirvela, 2006) There are remedial classes for such students prior to high school but only offered in handful of schools across the nations. There are many elements and factors that are valued by other researchers to spend months and years to discuss and offer resolutions for such challenges. This is a primary need of any student to know English appropriate to mainstream classroom needed in any content area. We are basically becoming desensitized to an ongoing ESL dilemma. Setting aside our differences and political favoritism, this can be resolved only when we focus on the need of any English Learner at any given time. (Benesch, 1993) My approach is to use technological advances in developing educational tools to bridge the language gap for ELL students only in Science classrooms. I was a secondary science teacher for 11 years and have vivid memories of these students’ track records. The ones who had the wit and the motivation to come forward and requested assistance, only ended up in my after school sessions, for couple of hours. I always wondered what happened to the ones who had the interest but had other obligation to the family or jobs to go to. I always wondered, if these students understood the content in their language, just like their peers, what would have been their experience in science. The time spent on learning a second language, the relevancy to other content in English classrooms can be essential. Two of us from Science and English department found that, collaborating efforts, to be an effective approach in assisting students achieve their excellence. Students would come to my Biology, I taught with Inquiry based approach; therefore I would be using their visual strengths in understanding the materials. ESL students would follow up with the English teacher to complete the assignments. English teacher would give them credit for her standard and I would give credit for the science part. The assessments as well as the teaching science core material were designed for ESL students with their needs in mind. Statement of the Problem English Learners are faced with layers of stumbling barriers along the way (Herrera & Wedin, 2010). One of them is their understanding of the introduced material. In science, we use variety of methods to make objective of each concept as understandable as possible. (Juuti & Lavonen, 2006)The problem is the higher thinking and problem solving skills, these students need to show they possess. Many of these students can show they possess the skills if offered to explain or use their higher thinking abilities in their language of origin. (Evans & Levinson, 2009)They start to have problems when they are forced to show their skills in English. To clarify, the problem is this latter issue, the problem is their lack of sufficient (Olivo, 2003) knowledge of the language. The history can be used not to rub in our face our unsuccessful attempts; it can be used to give us a direction.
Purpose of the Study A fresh approach to resolve a century old problem with ESL students is to assist the students in their understanding the core material. Assessment then would be based on this fresh approach. Use of 21st century translating and collaborating tools to build a bridge for our English learner students in Science classrooms
Research Questions Research Question: 1.Is there a nationwide, statewide, countywide, and local problem with ESL students in Science classrooms? Research Question: 2.What has been done to address the problem with approaches appropriate for the information era? Research Question: 3. Can today's Technology Bridge the language gap in science classrooms
Review of the Literature Introduction
Theme 1 Books and Articles After reading Dervin's examples of researching sense-making and having conducted your own action research cycle, you should be able to generate some ideas with regard to quantitative and qualitative ways to measure how other's might make sense from a training, web site, or other product you would produce to help others learn about your driving question. Does language barrier exist in science classrooms that prevent teachers and students to access their teaching and learning objectives? Proposed measuring process Interview teachers Interview students Interview Science coordinator for Mt. Diablo District Interview Science Coordinator for Contra Costa College Districts Interview Science Coordinator for Contra Costa Office of Education Review articles regarding local ESL students’ achievements in Science, Contra Costa County, Mt. Diablo District Review of Everett Rogers ”diffusion of Innovation” Much has been made of the profound effect of the “tipping point”, the point at which a trend catches fire – spreading exponentially through the population. The idea suggests that, for good or bad, change can be promoted rather easily in a social system through a domino effect. The tipping point idea finds its origins in diffusion theory, which is a set of generalizations regarding the typical spread of innovations within a social system. In an effort to judge the truth and power of epidemic spreading of trends, I read Everett Rogers’s scholarly and scientific Diffusion of Innovations (1995), which has become the standard textbook and reference on diffusion studies. What I find in this comprehensive and even-handed treatment is an insightful explanation of the conditions that indicate that an innovation will reach the much-hyped tipping point. In this review, I will outline these basic characteristics of an innovation and its context that correlate with its diffusion. Furthermore, I will show the ways in which these understandings improve our capacity to take efficacious action to speed it up. At this point, I will be able to evaluate the claim that the tipping point makes it easy to spread change. Diffusion of Innovation is defined as the process by which an innovation is adopted and gains acceptance by members of a certain community. While a number of factors interact to influence the diffusion of an innovation, the four major factors are features of the innovation itself, how information about the innovation is communicated, time, and the nature of the social system into which the innovation is being introduced (Rogers, 1995). Diffusion research, in its simplest form, investigates how these major factors, and a multitude of other factors, interact to facilitate or impede the adoption of a specific product or practice among members of a particular adopter group.
The study of diffusion theory is potentially valuable to the field of instructional technology for three reasons. First, most instructional technologists do not understand why their products are, or are not, adopted. This may be resulted from lack of or incomplete research process in a very real sense. The underlying causes of instructional technology's diffusion remains a mystery to the field. There appear to be as many reasons for instructional technology's lack of utilization as there are instructional technologists. Some blame teachers and an intrinsic resistance to change as the primary causes of instructional technology's diffusion problem. Others cite overwhelming paperwork, bureaucracy and lack of funding. By better understanding the multitude of factors that influence adoption of innovations, instructional technologist will be better able to explain, predict and account for the factors that impede or facilitate the diffusion of their products. Second, instructional technology is inherently an innovation-based discipline. Many of the products of instructional technology represent radical innovations in the form, organization, sequence, and delivery of instruction. An instructional technologist who understands the innovation process and theories of innovation diffusion will have a more comprehensive understanding of the discipline and be more fully prepared to work effectively with clients and potential adopters. Third, the study of diffusion theory could lead to the development of a systematic, prescriptive model of adoption and diffusion. Instructional technologists have long used systematic models to guide the process of instructional development (ID). These systematic ID models have resulted in the design and development of effective and pedagogically sound innovations. A systematic model of diffusion could help guide the instructional innovation process in a similar manner and, perhaps, with similarly effective results. This is reminded to be a theory and a relatively a new one. Theory in science does not become widely accepted until tested and proven to produce the same result. This theory, although appears to be sound for present and future investigations and tests, it is too early to expect a confirmed answers. The theory inherently one that can be studied retroactively, we are to accept the short history of technology and the process of diffusion of the technology in its fetal stages. Instructional technologists have this fact as an impeding factor to construct new processes by which to test the theory. The theory has developed with the same speed of the development of technology if not slower. Nevertheless, with instructional technology gaining momentum, there is a prospect that it travels with the same speed of growing technology itself. Instructional technologist as we have learned through the innovative learning courses, books and articles, can anticipate sound result by designing research in the community they study that include sense-making, ethical values of the particular community, preconceptions, individuality, mobility in the information, societal and cultural resistance. What would one answer the question of a scientist who is puzzled by what the effects are on the environment with all these servers at work. Are we ready to proactively develop a sense of what will happen to humanity in the future with adopting too serendipitously the technology we have only tested in a short period and sometimes in movies. Movies depict technology either as a magical inception to all greatness and distinctions or as a horrifying ending to humanity. Do we really have the answer where on this spectrum technology would fall? Instructional technologist will distance themselves from discovering more about diffusion of innovation when the innovation and technology found distinctions. There is a great distinction between innovation and technology. Acknowledging the distinction will make the process closer to finding answers. Distinction between technology and innovation, Egyptians and Persians in the ancient history lived their daily lives by creating new and innovative ways for prosperity of their people. Underground water systems which gave the whole town fresh water (ghanat) in ancient Persia was an innovative system. Is total sum of all innovations equal to technology? Are all innovators adopters of technology? Is the assumption of innovation is equal to technology present in Rogers theory of diffusion? Have other Instructional technologists and researchers brought this bias into the theory? John Seely 2010 NMC
1. Punctuated evolution is the era we live in. Education was on a S curve for years steady and a little shift and then steady. Now we experience short periods of practicing and then technology makes a shift in our social behaviors and therefore education. When the technology growth went from steady to rapid changes took place in short period of time. 2. Collaborative learning is possible due to the growth in technology in the case of surfer and how one boy changed the way everyone in the world surf today. His collaborative effort with Four other surfers in learning how to be a champion from Islands of Hawaii. Now all the surfers around the globe can learn about new move all in a total of 12 hours. Learning, unlearning & relearning proved to be a way for new century. We need to learn to use innovative ways to reach people globally. We are now closer to others than ever, the distance separating us from one on the other side of the world is a thin crystal in front of us. Learning new ways is the key to success. Success doesn’t necessarily mean our financial gain. Success is reaching everyone globally share what I know to be true and useful for all. Today the Mantra is “if I am not learning then it's not fun" Howard Gardner, the author of “Five minds for the future” from the Ross Institute writes about, Multiple Intelligence, Five Minds in accordance with civilization, Discipline, Lifelong habit & Synthesizing Expert in profession thinking out of the box History, Science, Mathematical & Art Something that has been proven to be working over and over again is the fundamental and essential part of our thinking. We act according to what we know to be true. FACT IS FACT IS FACT Just need reformulating. All we need to keep the essentials and find other ways that work for our students today. We can’t just count the most important variable in the whole setting such as our core fundamental content, I previously alluded to and expect a better outcome. We are also to refrain from doing the same thing over and over again because we don’t want to commit insanity. Creative minds: tough challenges, deal with things that don't work instead of dropping the whole issue, are the characters we ought to teach our kids. Resting, finding happiness where it doesn’t exist and less challenging spirits are the underlying problem with the generation millennium & perhaps for that matter generation X. Literacy for generations meant gathering information and processing the now knowledge. Literacy started with notion of finding the truth about the environment. Answering why things happened the way they did or still do. New ideas generated on the hard found information and knowledge. Literacy was a collection of knowledge that took years of being on long journeys, design something to write on and write with. And this piece of information took years to be passed on hand by hand. It was knowledge collected over a life-time of a unique kind of person who wanted to know the answers to questions.Today literacy has changed shape, color, a new ways of transmission. Knowledge is accessible, the concern today is legitimate information, the source of information and then of course what to do with the information. Today’s intention for literacy is not as clear as it used to be. The ways of finding information and reaching the source of information, weeding through, form an idea based on the collected information, and the action following the knowledge have grouped together as literacy. Today’s literacy has taken on a new meaning. Literacy is collectively, have a valid purpose or intention for gathering the information, make sense of the information, take an action to benefit the world in some shape or form. We are out of the era of hunter and gatherer of information; we are now in the era of not only recovering the truth, but also think about what we have done, what we do and whom we impact. I best prepare my students, by teaching them how to decide what information to look for. How to decide where to look for them and ask them how does that information impact them or others and what they want to do about it? No one can decide if one is creative or not Creative minds, Design, Synthesis, Creativity, Ethical mind, Respectful mind Globalization, Silk Road Collaboration with art and music from far, mid, near East Edward Saeed: Collaborative movies by Palestinians and Israeli children, Efforts to counter the forces disrespect. Mark Lewis: Lack of understanding tolerance over intolerance. Challenge of gathering these 5 minds together: again to benefit from, Design, Synthesis, Creativity, Ethical mind, Respectful mind. Ethical meltdown is what being addressed in "Good work Project" Developing meaningful life & meaningful work design a Toolkit, Traveling curriculum Practical & applied work. Sir Ken Robinson believes schools with the current pedagogical practices can kill creativity.
Theme 2 Interview with David Malone Associated professor of Innovative Learning Program, Touro University Interview with Dr. Kindred Murillo President of South Tahoe Community College Theme 3 Survey of ESL students in Science classroom Napa Learning Summary With Security of students on one hand and their deep understanding of social media, we would like our students to be able to use the innovative technology. Provide them with guidelines and social media policy, enabling them to be proactive and productive part of the 21st Century learning and teaching society We need to train teachers and instructor to recognize the need for new approaches in teaching ESL students We need to recognize the new approaches and develop resources and material to train teachers We need to provide the training to our teachers We want to have tools and resources accessible to our teachers Empower teachers and students in utilizing these new collaborative tools Encourage ESL students to utilize these resources for their success and build a continuing relationship with these students. Teachers and lawmakers are to practice bipartisan action to overcome the political and ethnic favoritism for the sake of saving thousands of students. Open pathways for students to enrich their lives through education.
Project Introduction Other research, Articles, Books, Interviews, surveys Materials Google doc forms to conduct surveys Interviewees, Computer, Data Analysis Plan To analyze the survey conducted with ESL students in high school science classrooms To summarize the interviews conducted with Dr. Malone & Dr. Murillo regarding the need of technology and resources available to ESL students at college level At this point analyzing where one student is to where one student wants to be clear the way for developing a plan for that student within that particular situation with those sets of experiences. What then needs to be done is to increase the sample size of students from retrospect and now from those who had the experience in the past and who are experiencing the experience from suburbs to inner city schools, from Iranian students to East Asia to East European. One issue that we need to remember and pointed out by Dervin's “the whole new mind” is lack of motivation on the users’ part can affect the analysis just to be aware of it. The sense- making process is what we need to have a clear comprehension of. This is a problem solving on a larger scale, allowing for other elements and factors to be in the study without the fear of creating chaos. The clear understanding and prior knowledge of the existing gap, developing a valid purpose for the research, motivation to build the bridge to create steps to get over the gap, We need to rid ourselves from the assumption that people (ESL students) are broken and they need fixing, the change in situation they are in can be a step in bridge making. Asking questions, staying focused on the existing gap, allow for creative and effective ways to bridge the gap, all and all can be a way to plan for a meaningful research. At the end to be in that place where fear of political clout and other factors won't be an issue so one can implement the changes. One should be able to advocate for what the research tells us to be true.
Findings and Implications
Findings Research Question 1. Indeed the problem exist, Nationwide, statewide, countywide, and within local districts (Petrzela, 2010), (Scarcella, 1996), (Education, 2007), (Huber, 2011) Research Question 2. This problem has been addressed by researchers and there are many data collected by other researchers, however, There is very small data on effective approaches. Schools are still using conventional methods for ESL students. (Youngs & Youngs, 2001), (MOUSSU, 2010), (Adamson, 1990), (Huang, 2009) & (Song, 2006) Research Question 3. study shows that English Learners have a great capacity to learn with new translating and collaborating technologies and tools. Science and English art teachers, also have invested interest in using an effective tools to help English Learners. These tools can be shared by students, teachers, parents, and other parties to enhance students' experience in science. Specific aspect of the tool is used by an appropriate party involved. Google translating tools , PC , mobile and tablet platforms supporting Google applications now create new promises for ESL students. Recent additions and changes to Google translate has given us a hope that other companies follow their footsteps. Our educational system need to understand the urgency in utilizing this new trend. We, collectively as stake takers in education, ought to use t new developing innovative applications to fulfill the hopes and dreams of ESL students in their strive for higher education. Their access to higher education and success in achieving their potential capabilities means healthier economy and give purpose to our immigrant to become a productive part of the society.
Implications: Capability & compatibility of translating application.
References Adamson, H. D. (1990). ESL students’ use of academic skills in content courses. English for Specific Purposes, 9, 67–87. doi:10.1016/0889-4906(90)90029-c Benesch, S. (1993). ESL, ideology, and the politics of pragmatism. TESOL Quarterly, 27, 705–717. doi:10.2307/3587403 Crandall, J., & Sheppard, K. (2004). Adult ESL and the community college. Retrieved from the Council for the Advancement of Adult Literacy Web Site March 2008, 24, 2008. Education, C. S. B. of. (2007). Science Framework for California Public Schools -. Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve, With New Criteria for Instructional Materials (pp. 1–313). Retrieved from papers3://publication/uuid/9F98B3F6-467C-423C-8168-C7A9EB5196CA Evans, N., & Levinson, S. C. (2009). The myth of language universals: language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 429–448; discussion 448–494. doi:10.1017/S0140525X0999094X Herrera, L. M., & Wedin, Å. (2010). Bilingualism and bilingual education in a complex context. Language, Culture and Curriculum. doi:10.1080/07908318.2010.515996 Hirvela, A. (2006). Computer-mediated communication in ESL teacher education. ELT Journal, 60, 233–241. doi:10.1093/elt/ccl003 Huang, J. (2009). Factors Affecting the Assessment of ESL Students’ Writing. International Journal of Applied Educational Studies, 5, 1–17. doi:Article Huber, L. P. (2011). Discourses of racist nativism in California public education: English dominance as racist nativist microaggressions. Educational Studies, 47, 379–401. doi:10.1080/00131946.2011.589301 Juuti, K., & Lavonen, J. (2006). Design-Based Research in Science Education: One Step Towards Methodology. NorDiNa, 4, 54–68. Retrieved from http://www.naturfagsenteret.no/tidsskrift/Nordina_406_Juuti_Lavonen.pdf MOUSSU, L. (2010). Influence of Teacher-Contact Time and Other Variables on ESL Students’ Attitudes Towards Native- and Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers. TESOL Quarterly, 44, 746 – 768. doi:10.2307/27896762 OECD. (2011). Equity and Quality in Education - Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools. Methodology (p. 165). doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264130852-en Olivo, W. (2003). “Quit Talking and Learn English!”: Conflicting Language Ideologies in an ESL Classroom. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 34, 50–71. doi:10.1525/aeq.2003.34.1.50 Petrzela, N. M. (2010). Before the Federal Bilingual Education Act: Legislation and Lived Experience in California. Peabody Journal of Education, 85(4), 406–424. doi:10.1080/0161956X.2010.518021 Scarcella, R. C. (1996). Secondary education in California and second language research: Instructing ESL students in the 1990s. The CATESOL Journal, 129–152. Retrieved from papers://cfc50b6a-2d9e-4feb-87e5-d6012043bd5a/Paper/p1941 Song, B. (2006). Content-based ESL instruction: Long-term effects and outcomes. English for Specific Purposes, 25, 420–437. doi:10.1016/j.esp.2005.09.002 Youngs, C. S., & Youngs, G. A. (2001). Predictors of Mainstream Teachers’ Attitudes Toward ESL Students*. TESOL Quarterly, 35, 97–120. doi:10.2307/3587861
Appendix Survey of ELL Students in Science classroom Data & Graph Meaningful to understand the trust a student have in the teacher & the energy exerted to fulfill all that need in assisting students with not only, the content area, but also, translation of each scientific word. https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nyh7m6L_bToeXSnN_XnHjQ8jr34TKt75deM74nxgSwY/edit#responsesResearch into .....